Thursday, August 11, 2011

Ten kinds of cats that live in Indonesia

Indonesia has ten species of wild cats. Some of them are classified as endemic species which not found elsewhere. Animal wild cat which is characterized by Asia, are found only on the island of Sumatera, Java and Kalimantan alone. To the east line of Wallace, wild cat species is not found.

Species native cat is the cat species that naturally live in an area / regions. While the cat species is an endemic species of cat that has a very limited the spread area and not found elsewhere.

1. Congkok Cat / Leopard Cat ( Prionailurus Bengalensis Kerr, 1792)

The congkok cat including of one species of wild cat that has the widest the spread area in the world. Starting from Pakistani territory eastward to the Philippines and the Korean peninsula, eastern Russia to the south to the island of Java. Based  physical characteristics and spread of these animal, Cats Congkok divided into 11 sub-species, three of the  sub-species exist in Indonesia, namely: Prionailurus Bengalensis Sumatranus, PB Javanensis and PB Borneoensis.

2. Forest Cat / Jungle Cat ( Prionailurus Planiceps and Hortsfields Vigors, 1827)

The Forest cat is the relatively small cat species that has area very limited spread area in the Malay Peninsula, Sumatera and Kalimantan. This cat is specialized type of the cat that live in wetlands such as river banks, swamps, lakes and seaside. Body length of 41-50 cm with a weight of 1.5 to 2.5 kg.

The forest cat population is very widespread, but they were relatively rare live in nature. Currently the total number of individuals is estimated only 2,500. This population is likely to continue declining due to loss of wetland habitat and contamination of pollutants that contaminate many rivers. IUCN enter a forest cat as a species threatened with extinction ( endangered species ).

3. Mangrove Cat / Fishing Cat ( Prionailurus Viverrinus Bennett, 1833)

The mangrove cats spread in south Asia and the southeast Asia, including Sumatra and Java. Their body is generally gray with olive green that make up the total pattern of longitudinal lines along the body. Like jungle cats, these cats live in the area of specialized mangrove waters along the banks of rivers and mangrove forests. These cats including the proficient species swim and love the water. The soles of the feet are webbed swimming that allows these cats to ambush the mangrove fish as the main prey with easily.

4. Red Cat / Bay Cat / Bornean Red Cat ( Catopuma Badia Gray, 1874)

The red cat is one of the most mysterious species of cat in the world. All knowledge about the type of cat this is only from 12 preserved specimens stored in museums of Europe. The first specimen obtained by Alfred Russel Wallace, a famous British naturalist in Sarawak, North Borneo in 1855. By the end of the 20th century, no one has ever seen this cat alive, until the cat was captured in 1992. Six years later, a second red cat caught and documented. This cat is so mysterious, until it took 143 years to get his picture in alive condition.

5. Golden Cat / Asiatic Golden Cat ( Catopuma Temminckii Vigors & Horsfield, 1827)

The golden cat including the cat  species that sized of three times larger than a house cat. The body length of 66-105 cm with a length of tail measuring 40-57 cm, weight 9-16 kg and a shoulder height of 56 cm. The spread area of these cats is quite extensive, covering the whole of south Asia, China and southeast Asia including the Malay peninsula. In Indonesia, golden cat only can be found on the island of Sumatra.

6. Stone Cat / Marbled Cat ( Pardofelis Marmorata Martin, 1837)

The stone cats scattered throughout south Asia and southeast Asia. In Indonesia, this cat can be found in Sumatera and Kalimantan. Its main habitat is the rainforest to a height of 3000 m. These animals hunt at night in a territory of about 4-6 square km. Its main prey are birds, squirrels, rats and reptiles. Often, the stone cat go down to the ground to hunt of prey, drinking and exploring. The population of stone cats worldwide is estimated about 10,000 tails and tend to continue to decline due to habitat loss. The IUCN classified the stone cat as a species vulnerable to extinction ( Vulnerable ).

7. House Cat / Domestic Cat ( Felis Catus , Linnaeus, 1758)

The house cat or pet cat is a cat species that are associated most closely with humans. Cat house has a body size and color that vary greatly. Their population are most numerous and scattered throughout the world. Efforts selection, crossover and cultivation for thousands of years, has been producing a variety of races of cats that have characters of different properties.

8. Clouded Leopard / Sumatran-Bornean Clouded Leopard ( Neofelis Diardi G. Cuvier, 1823)

The clouded leopard is a medium sized cat species that spread in the south Asia, China and southeast Asia, including Sumatera and Kalimantan. Up to now unknown of two clouded leopard species. In the asian mainland, this species named Neofelis Nebulosa and in the island of Sumatera, Kalimantan, this species named Neofelis Diardi . The results of recent genetic analysis suggests that the Sumatera clouded leopards are different sub-species with the Kalimantan clouded leopards. The Sumatera clouded leopard given the name Neofelis Diardi Sumatranus and Kalimantan clouded leopard is named Neofelis Diardi Borneensis.

9. Javan Leopard / Beetle Tiger / Leopard / Panther ( Panthera Pardus Melas G. Cuvier, 1809)

All over the world can be found about 9-11 sub-species of leopard. The spread area includes the area of the savannas of Africa to desert areas in Africa and in Asia start from areas of snow in the Himalayas and Siberia, until the heavily forested areas in the southeast Asia. Adaptability that remarkable cause leopards are capable of living in a variety of different habitat types. In Indonesia, the leopard can only be found on the island of Java (endemic) and known as Javan leopard and also called the kumbang tiger ( Panthera Pardus Melas ).

The Javan leopards are the big cats that including the opportunistic. When hunting, these predators are not picky and will ambush prey animals the anything encountered. Deer, monkeys, gibbons, and wild boar would became their favorite menu. Squirrels, reptiles and birds also would be pursued. If forced to, farm animals such as goats and sheep also will not be wasted by them. This causes the leopard is considered as pests by the population. Sometimes leopards also eat a little grass to aid digestion. Leopards are solitary animals who more often hunt at night (nocturnal).

10. Sumatran Tiger / Sumatran Tiger ( Panthera Tigris Sumatrae, Poocock, 1929)

Indonesia is one of the central area of ​​the spread of tigers in the world. From the 7-8 sub-species of tigers that known to the world, three of sub-species exist in Indonesia, namely the Sumatran tiger, Java and Bali. Uniquely, all the tigers in Indonesia is endemic animals that are not found elsewhere. Currently only the Sumatran tigers are still survive. Java and Bali tigers have been declared extinct by the IUCN due to poaching and habitat loss.

Now, the spread area of the Sumatran tiger is only limited in the forests of the mountains in the area a national park or other conservation area. Its population continues to decline due to poaching and habitat degradation. Currently estimated at no more than 400-500 tigers. IUCN enter the Sumatran tiger as a species of critical / highly endangered in the near future ( critically endangered ).

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